InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. The demand for carbon units on the international carbon market – consisting of three flexible mechanisms – is limited by the difference between the projected emissions of Schedule I countries on the one hand and QELROS, on the one hand, and QELROS and QELROS, which prevents these countries from covering more than half of their QELROS with carbon units generated beyond their borders. In practice, the demand for carbon units is mainly due to the EU and other countries such as Japan. President Obama was able to formally enshrine the United States in the agreement through executive measures because he did not impose new legal obligations on the country. The United States already has a number of instruments on the books, under laws already passed by Congress to reduce carbon pollution. The country officially joined the agreement in September 2016, after submitting its request for participation. The Paris Agreement was only able to enter into force after the formal accession of at least 55 nations representing at least 55% of global emissions.
This happened on October 5, 2016 and the agreement came into force 30 days later, on November 4, 2016. First, it would seem that the Paris Agreement is capable of creating sufficient demand, so that a solid carbon price develops. Article 2 and Article 4 set an ambitious and relatively precise temperature and time mitigation objective in Article 2 and Article 4 (although the use of verbs such as “objective” is not particularly bitebitable, both in provisions and in qualifiers such as “as soon as possible”).